A claw toe is a toe that is contracted at
the PIP and DIP joints (middle and end joints in the toe), and can lead to
severe pressure and pain. Ligaments and tendons that have tightened cause
the toe's joints to curl downwards. Claw toes may occur in any toe, except
the big toe. There is often discomfort at the top part of the toe that is
rubbing against the shoe and at the end of the toe that is pressed against
the bottom of the shoe.
Claw toes are classified based on the
mobility of the toe joints. There are two types - flexible and rigid. In a
flexible claw toe, the joint has the ability to move. This type of claw
toe can be straightened manually.
A rigid claw toe does not have that same
ability to move. Movement is very limited and can be extremely painful.
This sometimes causes foot movement to become restricted leading to extra
stress at the ball-of-the-foot, and possibly causing pain and the
development of corns and calluses.
Claw toes result from a muscle imbalance
which causes the ligaments and tendons to become unnaturally tight. This
results in the joints curling downwards. Arthritis can also lead to many
different forefoot deformities, including claw toes.
Treatment and Prevention
Changing the type of footwear worn is a
very important step in the treatment of claw toes. When choosing a shoe,
make sure the toe box (toe area) is high and broad, and can accommodate
the claw toes. A shoe with a high, broad toe box will provide enough room
in the forefoot area so that there is less friction against the toes.
Other conservative treatments include using
forefoot products designed to relieve claw toes, such as toe crests and
hammer toe splints. These devices will help hold down the claw toe and
provide relief to the forefoot. Gel toe shields and gel toe caps are also
recommended to eliminate friction between the shoe and the toe, while
providing comfort and lubrication.
If the problem persists, consult your